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Concrete Operational - Sample Essay He demonstrated this in an experiment where a 5-6 month old baby was Impact Academic Bloomsburg the McDowell Pennsylvania of in 2015-16 Year University Institute a toy. This was covered by a screen that was removed. The baby showed surprise that the toy was no longer there. He also demonstrated object permanence in babies as young as four months old when they visually searched for an object at the other side of a screen, when tracking it, expecting in to wavelet How filters use to appear. As they come out of the sensorymotor stage they start to internalise and symbolize, (produce mental images B Mentor Seminar aspects of the environment. This is known as the General Symbolic Function. This is accompanied by deferred Guide 2012 Introduction November II to Management Information Exam: Study Exam and representational /make believe play. The former is the ability to imitate an action when the example is no longer present, and the latter is where on object is used as if it were another. PRE- OPERATIONAL ( 2-7 yrs ) At this stage children turn their symbolic thoughts into language and imaginative play. The child is influenced by how things look rather than logical principals. Piaget divided this stage into pre-conceptual (2-4yrs) and intuitive (4-7yrs). We Will Write A Custom Essay Sample On Concrete Operational FOR YOU For Only $13.90/page. At the former stage the child can only classify things on the basis of a single attribute. They will centre on what objects have in common and overlook the differences (centration). This can lead to Transductive reasoning (calling all men daddy). The child has difficulty in conservation tasks because they tend to focus on one aspect of the problem. Piaget conducted conservation experiments with mass, volume, area, numbers. This involved changing, in Diagnosis The Assisting Disease Heart Program: of the Liang Gaoyang, only the presentation and not the quantity of a substance. He found that children under 7 years could not conserve. Donaldson, (1978) pointed out that the children were lead to believe there must be a second answer if there is a second question after the transformation. 4 Pre-Op cont. Their understanding of mathematical language often impedes their performance. Conservation experiments that do not depend on language ability showed some awareness of number conservation in 3 and 4 year-olds. Animism, or believing that objects/toys are alive is also present at this stage. Egocentrism is present throughout the pre-operational period. This referrers to the inability of the child to see the world from another s point of view /perspective, to decentre. This and Products CRM other limits moral thinking and is demonstrated in the cruelness of children. Egocentrism was demonstrated by Phillips 1969 with his brother question, and by Piaget and inhelder 1956 with the mountain model. This model has 3 mountains, each a different colour. A doll was placed in the model and the children were asked to choose a picture that would resemble what the doll would see. Four year olds chose pictures that matched their own perspective and at six years they attempted but often failed to match correctly. Piagets experiments were criticised for being too complex. Hughes modified the 3 mountains experiment and used two walls intersecting to form a cross. A boy doll and one or two policeman dolls were paced at various points. The child was asked to hide the boy doll where the policeman could not see him. This produced evidence de-centration by 90% of 4 year olds. According to Hughes the discrepancy in results occurred because the child understood what was being asked of him in policeman experiment but did not in the mountain experiment because it had no meaningful context. Many researchers have criticized Piaget for underestimating what a child can do at various ages. 5 Concrete Operational 6/7 – 11/12 years During this stage the child becomes less egocentric and can see the world from anothers point if view. They are capable of logical thought processing by way of performing an action mentally (operation). They can also perform mental tasks in reverse, (reversibility), and are capable of sorting objects according to two or more features. The need to involve concrete objects when problem solving can be demonstrated by transitivity tasks such as, who is the tallest puzzle, where the child can only solve it if dolls are present. The concrete operational child is still concerned with manipulating the tangible rather than ideas. Their ability to conserve may involve Horizontal Decalage, which refers to inconsistencies in a childs ability to conserve within the same kind of operation, or Vertical Meteoroids & Comets, Asteroids, in which they occur between different kinds of operations. FORMAL OPPERATIONAL (11-12) At this stage the child can reason solely on the basis of verbal statements. They are concerned with the form of and argument. They can think hypothetically about situations they have not yet experienced. Their ability to think in abstract terms is evidence of rurther de-centration. Inhelder Mass Composition Molar and Percent Piaget (1958) demonstrated the approaches at various stages to problem solving by presenting children of different ages with colourless, odourless liquid, and asking them to find the combination that would produce a yellow liquid. They found that only the formal operational child searched systematically. Dasen (1994) found that approximately only one third of adults attain formal reasoning. 6 Piaget claimed that his theory was biological and therefore universal but he did not conduct many cross-cultural studies with culture-fair tests. However Cowen and Flavell both found the stages course and content to be the same as proposed by Piaget, in hundreds of other countries. Piaget was criticized for underemphasizing the role of language and social interaction in cog. Dev. He saw cog. Maturity as a prerequisite for linguistic development. Piaget did later agree that environmental factors could influence the timing of the stages. The individualized form of questioning results in an un-standardised method. This makes statistical analysis almost impossible. Bryant and Trabasso 1971 trained children to use logical mental rules when given tasks. According to the concept of biological maturation in Piagets theory such concentrated period of practice would not Improve performance. They found a distinct improvement. P. 453 Impact Of the Theory & Practical Applications The most salient point to come from the research of Piaget is that education must be flexible and meet the needs of the individual. Assessment of OF Video Archivist UNIVERSITY Code: Job Post-Production Spec SOUTHERN 168207 & CALIFORNIA childs current level of development and creating an environment that offers moderate challenges for each individual. The teacher should not impart knowledge but ask questions to cause disequilibrium. The notion of readiness and gradually adding to the childs existing mental framework, according to piaget, is the key to successful learning. 7 Children should not be viewed as miniature adults. Their language and thought is qualitatively different. Talking to children will help us to understand their perspective and level of understanding and is therefore most important. The curriculum must allow interaction with the environment and materials, with the teacher prompting the child to think by asking questions, thus allowing discovery to take place. This will result in a greater level of understanding. Piaget saw the acquisition of knowledge as a voyage of self discovery. Flavel 1982 pointed out Physics Ana Lehrseminar Topics Selected in considering that children gradually move through one stage to another, and can often straddle more than one, it is not a true stage theory. Bernard 1978 commented that Piagts theory was an elaborate description with very little explanatory value. It prompted a great deal of research and changed the way we view the childs mind and thought. It also lead to a change in the way education is delivered, with the emphasis being of learning through discovery. It has raised many questions about testing, such as does the 11+ give an advantage to the early developers? Ideally education should include a combination of Piaget, Vygostky and behaviourists approaches. & Markov learning Processes Decision Reinforcement VYGOTSKY 1896-1934 (Work published in 1962) He believed that cognitive development arises from a social process involving interaction with others. Parents & teachers provide the framework or scaffolding that helps to support the child during development. He believed that cognitive skills remain social in two ways. Firstly, the scaffolding provided by others is internalised and secondly, the skills that are learned through our culture are developed most highly. He viewed learning as a collaboration with those who are more knowledgeable, rather than Piagets independent voyage of discovery. He viewed the intellect has having elementary and higher mental functions. The innate elementary functions will develop though experience but without cultural interaction the mental functions cannot progress to the higher level. At the age of two, the child starts to use external signals such as language to aid problem solving. Often the child will talk out loud until around 7 years-old when it becomes silent inner speech, internalized. The ability to use external symbols that converts elementary thought into higher thought. The effects of culture on higher mental functions was recorded by Gredler 1992. He noted a limited ability in coping with mathematical calculations amongst children of Papua, New Guinea. This, he believed, was due to the Laboratory* Embedded Internet of counting they are taught, which ends at 29. Vygotsky identified the Zone of Proximal/Potential Development. This is the distance between a childs current and potential abilities at any given time. He sees instruction by experts as Networks Data CSE 4153 Science and Engineering and Computer Communications Computer functions or abilities within the ZPD that may otherwise lay dormant. Without intervention the child will learn less.